These social classes can be classified as two nations: the rich and the poor.
The borders and lines of these classes are so sharp that parents of different classes do not send their children to the school where the children of lower class can attend. If they have to send, then they caution their children not to play or talk to the other children. The Burnells inevitably send their children to a public school since the school for the privileged is so far and they do not allow their daughters to speak with the Kelveys.
But there was none. It was the only school for miles. Not to speak of there being an equal number of rude, rough little boys as well.
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But the line had to be drawn somewhere. It was drawn at the Kelveys. Many of the children, including the Burnells, were not allowed even to speak to them. They walked past the Kelveys with their heads in the air, and as they set the fashion in all matters of behaviour, the Kelveys were shunned by everybody. The rich have a great, flawless and colourful life. Its two solid little chimneys, glued on to the roof, were painted red and white, and the door, gleaming with yellow varnish, was like a little slab of toffee. Four windows, real windows, were divided into panes by a broad streak of green Why Mrs.
Kelvey made them so conspicuous was hard to understand. The feelings of the poor children, to be the other and the miserable, are depicted so disconsolately. Their personality has developed in this way; so depressive and lonely. This is a proper output which ruling ideology aims: to bring up the members of lower class in a passive and isolated mood. In an ideological apparatus of the State, in the school, the teacher is the agent of the State aiming to shape the individuals. While the dominant children have noble names such as Isabel, Lottie, the passive children deprived of this nobility.
Poverty and otherness are very agreeable couple, they act in harmony. Where Lil went our Else followed. In the playground, on the road going to and from school, there was Lil marching in front and our Else holding on behind.
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Only when she wanted anything, or when she was out of breath, our Else gave Lil a tug, a twitch, and Lil stopped and turned round. The Kelveys never failed to understand each other. They do not know the feeling of indigence while the Kelveys do not know the feeling of abundance. They live in the same neighbourhood but their conditions are quite different that as if they lived in different countries or planets.
Their only desire is to be able to see what other children own. The children of Burnells are happy, social and alive and they have self-confidence which is the feature of a dominant culture. The girls of her class nearly fought to put their arms round her, to walk away with her, to beam flattering, to be her special friend. And the only two who stayed outside the ring were the two who were always outside, the little Kelveys.
While always, as near as they could get, sat the Kelveys, our Else holding on to Lil, listening too, while they chewed their jam sandwiches out of a newspaper soaked with large red blobs. The rich and the poor are fed by different food and this shows the different living conditions of the two nations. Dead silence.
What a sell for Lena! The girls began to titter. In this scene, we can deeply feel despair and pitifulness of the poor. In fact, the positions of children who are the representatives of different social classes are evident and they will take the place of their parents in the future. That is the role provided by ruling ideology for them. To jump onto a higher social class is not welcome. However, Mansfield is not so desperate at all.
As the youngest girl of dominant class who has not been shaped by State Apparatuses yet, Kezia shows interest to the lamp while it does not mean anything for her elder sisters. And also, it is something very important for Else, the youngest of the Kelveys. At the end of the story, she is able to see the lamp.
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One day it will light and illuminate the darkness in the heads and thoughts of people. For domineering ideology, there are two classes in the society: the bourgeoise who has all means of production and the proletariat who are devoid of these means. Some are designed to be the members of upper class in the society owning those means in the future and they are treated according to this goal. The other ones are supposed to be the members of a lower class, in other words the working class, carrying out the duties as a machine given to them by the bourgeoisie.
They both are trained and treated in ISAs according to this understanding. And Mansfield reveals this practice in her story. She divides the children of the same society into two; the Burnells as the representatives of dominant class and the Kelveys as of the working class. The distinction between those social classes is so explicit. While the Burnells have everything to comfort their lives, the Kelveys do not have even anything to put on.
They wear the clothes of other people for whom their mother works and which do not fit them and are inharmonious. Those clothes look strange on them as if they came from a different planet. The Burnells eat mutton sandwiches but the Kelveys eat jam sandwiches. The Burnells have many friends around them but the Kelveys are always alone, they do not have any friends and they are excluded from the friendly environment of the children at school.
The Burnells are happy but the Kelveys are shy and timid, always in a passive mood. The teacher behaves the Burnells and the Kelveys quite differently as if he wanted to prove that they came from different worlds. In this study, it has been concluded that the ruling ideology shapes the society, both the poor and the rich, through the ISAs of Althusser such as family and school.
The family members of the rich and the poor behave and act according to the expectations and tasking of the ruling ideology. For instance, the aunt of rich children, Beryl, does not permit her nieces to have intercourse with poor children and she tries to build a barricade between them.
This is a method of upper class using for marginalization. On the other hand, the mother of poor children does not want her daughters to interrelate with rich children either; because she has been taught by ruling class to know her limits very well. As a result of this training, the children have acquired a passive, timid and antisocial personality.follow link
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Accordingly, the school also contributes to the social formation according to Althusserian principles. The teachers and the students in the school treat to these rich and poor children differently. Their attitudes to the Burnells, the rich class, are inclusive; yet, the attitudes towards the Kelveys, the poor class, are exclusive.
As a result of such type of behavioural differences, the poor children have been brought up in a passive, unsocial, cowed and weak mood; the rich children have been brought up in a social, active and influential mood. That is to say, the people act according to the ideology of ruling class and the society takes shape through the goals of this class.
Anthropological Quarterly, Vol. Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays.